Monday, May 1, 2017

Literature Review #5: The Demand for Student-Athlete Labor and the Supply of Violations in the NCAA

1. Visual


2. Citation
Harris, Jill S. "The Demand for Student-Athlete Labor and the Supply of Violations in the NCAA." Marquette Sports Law Review 26.2 (2016): 411-432.

3. Summary
This piece, written by author Jill Harris, focuses primarily on the cartel characteristics the NCAA holds true and dear to its heart. The write up develops a theoretical framework for the supply of NCAA violations and its demand for student-athlete labor.

4. Author
Jill Harris- An author for the Marquette Sports Review at one time, does not have much information regarding her personal life on the internet. Ms. Harris maybe using a "fake" author name to conceal her identity. Nonetheless, she shines a great light on how the NCAA is a form of a cartel and seeks to unearth the corruption that lies within the NCAA framework.

5. Key Terms
-cartel
-textbook
-NCAA
-crime literature
-amateurism

6. Quotes
"The NCAA exhibits so many “classical” cartel characteristics it is essentially a textbook case” (Harris 413).
"The investigation of NCAA behavior is influenced most by economics of crime literature. Cheating on NCAA amateurism rules can be modeled as a rational choice. Detection and punishment of cartel cheating, thus, become necessary functions of the NCAA" (Harris 415).

7. Values
Jill Harris' main objective in this piece is to uncover how and why the NCAA indirectly promotes cartel-type rationalizations, but doesn't punish itself when caught doing so. She calls on the National Collegiate Athletics Associations to own up to its wrongdoings instead of hiding from the truth.

Literature Review #4: College Athletes for Hire: The Evolution and Legacy of the NCAA's Amateur Myth

1. Visual

2. Citation
Sack, Allen L., and Ellen J. Staurowsky. College Athletes for Hire: The Evolution and Legacy of the NCAA's Amateur Myth. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1998. Print.
3. Summary
This book highlights the inconsistencies in the NCAA's amateurism model rather than its corrupt nationwide "money-laundering" scheme. Both authors go to show that the NCAA formally abandoned amateurism in the 1950s and passed rules in subsequent years that literally transformed scholarship athletes into university employees.
4. Author
Ellen J. Staurowsky- She is an associate professor of Sports Science at Ithaca College. She is also a former college athlete, coach, and athletic director. Ellen brings a practical unique insight to the major problems facing intercollegiate athletics.
Allen L. Sack- He is a sociology professor at The University of New Haven. He played defensive end on Ara Parseghian's 1966 National Championship football team and was drafted out of college by the Los Angeles Rams. He is currently the Coordinator of the Management of Sports Industries Program at the University of New Haven.
5. Key Terms
-Amateurism
-NCAA
-collegiate
-open market
-revenues
6. Quotes
“In other words, under the present system, hundreds, and even thousands, of dollars are often funneled to blue-chip athletes that when combined with scholarship money roughly approximate what some athletes would be getting in an open market. By openly acknowledging that college athletes are in fact professionals, little would change except that athletes would get a bigger share of sports revenues and no longer be treated as criminals for accepting compensation they deserve” (Sack & Staurowsky, 144).
7. Value
Both authors provide keen insight to the NCAA and its corrupt nature, but more on the side of its abandonment of the amateurism model in 1950s and the lasting effect its had on the brand and its practices. This book is a provocative analysis for anyone interested in college sports in America and its subversion of traditional educational and amateur principles.

Blog #10: Abstract and Works Cited

Abstract
After researching the corrupt nature of the NCAA, I learned that no matter how corrupt as institution can be, as long as the brand is in complete control, the autonomy it has can easily turn into corruption. Continuously surviving scandal after scandal and profiting through the years by exploiting its own student-athletes has been the “bread and butter” of the National Collegiate Athletics Association. Maybe one day there will be change for the better, change where there are way less scandals and violations incurred by these major Division 1 programs. But as long as the NCAA remains the pipeline for student-athletes to become professionals at their respective sports, this change we seek may never come to fruition. There is the slight ability for the NCAA to become even more corrupt than it is now, especially if “student”-athlete regulations become stricter and sports media becomes more dependent on the NCAA’s weaknesses than it already is now.
Works Cited
1. Branch, Taylor. The Cartel: Inside the Rise and Imminent Fall of the NCAA. San Francisco, CA: Byliner, 2011. Print.
2. Branch, Taylor. "The Shame of College Sports." The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 19 Feb. 2014. Web. 27 Feb. 2017.
3. Harris, Jill S. "The Demand for Student-Athlete Labor and the Supply of Violations in the NCAA." Marquette Sports Law Review 26.2 (2016): 411-432.
4. Lodge, Alexander. "Who's Afraid of the Big Bad NCAA?...The Ed O'Bannon v. NCAA Decision's Impact on the NCAA's Amateurism Model." Journal of Corporation Law 41.3 (2016): 775-93. Business Source Premier [EBSCO]. Web. 27 Feb. 2017.
5. Milford, Mike. "Kenneth Burke's Punitive Priests and the Redeeming Prophets: The NCAA, the College Sports Media, and the University of Miami Scandal." Communication Studies66.1 (2014): 45-62. Scopus. Web.
6. Sack, Allen L., and Ellen J. Staurowsky. College Athletes for Hire: The Evolution and Legacy of the NCAA's Amateur Myth. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1998. Print.
7. Whitlock, Jason. "NCAA Breeds a Culture of Corruption." Kansas City Star 27 May 2010, News sec.: B1. Print.

Research Blog #9: Argument & Counter-Argument

Argument

The NCAA, as an institution, breeds a culture of corruption. Because of the scandals that have occurred in the past three decades, it is evident that the NCAA has crafted the perfect formula for building its brand and staying afloat all these years through the means of exploiting its own student-athletes. The poor infrastructure of the NCAA’s rules and regulations influenced some of the abysmal choices made by boosters and school officials that have put programs “behind the eight ball”. It’s sad to say, but the brand itself is just too massive is today’s culture to fall. The corrupt nature of the NCAA begins at the student-athlete level, climbs to those involved with funding the school and administrators finishes at the level of National Collegiate Athletics Association. The problem with the NCAA is its poor infrastructure because by the time the scandal gets to it, it's already been diffused at the student-athlete and/or college/University level through sanctions.

Counter-Argument

A counter argument that could change the landscape of college athletics is made in “College Athletes for Hire” written by Allen L. Sack and Ellen J. Staurowsky. While both authors continue to pin the blame on the NCAA for its handling of its student-athletes, the writers shed a different, unique light on the matter of collegiate athletes and compensation. They state that, “In other words, under the present system, hundreds, and even thousands, of dollars are often funneled to blue-chip athletes that when combined with scholarship money roughly approximate what some athletes would be getting in an open market. By openly acknowledging that college athletes are in fact professionals, little would change except that athletes would get a bigger share of sports revenues and no longer be treated as criminals for accepting compensation they deserve” (Sack & Staurowsky, 144). Basically, they are challenging the NCAA to compensate its athletes because the institution has slowly but surely been taking the “student” out of “student-athlete”. Both authors argue that if the NCAA is going to continue to glorify their student-athletes and go about their business as usual, then it is only fair to give the athletes, especially the blue-chip ones, the money they deserve and to not be treated as delinquents for collecting compensation from their respective school. Basically, the NCAA should heavily consider paying its athletes just as if they are professionals because of the revenue they pull in for the school without "officially" seeing any of it.

Tuesday, April 25, 2017

Literature Review #3: The Cartel



The Cartel, written by Taylor Branch, focuses on a three-point reform agenda for the NCAA to follow in order to clean up its image and public perception.

1) Transparency- Alumni, principle stakeholders and fans must be ensured that entire, verifiable and forthright records for athletic proceeds and obligations are accessible for viewing. The stakeholders would cover the school's athletic department, students both on and off its athletic squads, representatives of the school’s bureaucratic leadership and its faculty.

2) Balance- Stakeholders should be obliged to exercise conjunctive responsibility for the distinct spheres of both sports and academics. For instance, they should be allowed to address in particular any discrepancy allowed for athletic recruits in University admissions. More generally speaking, they could allot a percentage of sports broadcasting and advertising receipts to the common academic financial plan. Stakeholders could also fix the class calendar to help seasonal demands on athletes and take steps towards encouraging interaction in campus life between the regular students and collegiate athletes, too.

3) Equity- Colleges and universities must respect the fundamental rights of every student, whether or not that respective student is deemed an athlete at the school or not. On the other hand, no freedom should be cut down because of an athletic position at the University. To meet empirical needs and desires, all students should be qualified to lookout for just reimbursement in full or part-time jobs, work-study programs, and all other authorized ventures whether affiliated or not with their respective University.

Reserach Blog #8: My Case

     As I have been saying, the NCAA breeds a culture of corruption. Regardless of their level of corruption, the media-propagandized facade that capitalism spawns include corporate institutions that are too big to fail and too profitable to police. This theory extends to the American sports world too, especially the NCAA.
     Jason Whitlock, a reporter for The Kansas City Star, chronicled the NCAA's modern system of control and hypocritical rules that exist merely to financially "exploit" football and basketball players. The organization has survived past its usefulness. There are no moral principles in hell. Non-believers do not cohere to the "rules". Not even the six and seven figure beneficiaries have confidence in the NCAA's model. The culture of corruption nurtured by the NCAA produces a breeding ground for those who have an "in" with the correct people in the industry. An example of this is through ticket brokers, such as the infamous Pump brothers, who use their connections with college coaches to lock up large amounts of Final Four tickets and sell them at colossal profits. For decades, the NCAA has been infamous in providing head and assistant coaches with tickets to prime-time events such as the Elite Eight and Final Four. It's never been a secret that coaches sell these tickets to brokers for a profit, but the NCAA sweeps this under the rug.
     The NCAA is smart, though. To facilitate perception that the collegiate brand is against this fraud, the NCAA collaborated with a ticket broker that instantly purchases the tickets back from coaches at face value. Whitlock proposed that if the NCAA was invested in halting fraud amongst its coaches and the like, it would treat them the same way it treats the media. Media members aren't promised tickets to these events and are required to show up with government issued IDs and sport credentials that signify it is actually them and not a phony.
     Whitlock states, "Corruption is the NCAA's life partner. Passing itself off as an institution promoting the ideas and values of "amateur athletics" is a fraud so bold and laughable that it borders on criminal."
     This is just an example of how the NCAA breeds corruption through and through. The unfair ticket scheme is only one aspect of how the NCAA operates under fraudulence covertly, while attempting to cover its tracks with a move seen as "just" by the public.

Research Blog #7: Frame & Project



The most important and recurring term in regard to the topic at hand is corruptness. The NCAA is heralded for its famous corrupt nature. From paying student-athletes, to point shaving by players (and sometimes even coaches), to unethically profiting from student-athletes, these are just some of the aspects that create a "corrupt" nature that haunts the National Collegiate Athletic Association and casts a dark cloud over it. My paper will look to focus on this area of corruption and uncover how the NCAA grows as a brand and stays clean, while scandals that involve players, schools and boosters also directly involve the NCAA.